First aid: Artificial respiration
Examine immediately the breathing of any accident victim
If a person has stopped breathing from any cause, start artificial respiration at once. Seconds count! The most efficient and practical way to save a life is to blow your breath into the victim's lungslike inflating a balloon, letting out the pressure, inflating again. You can do this without help or equipment. A child can save the life of an adult with this method.
Mouth to mouth (or mouth to nose) resuscitation:
If foreign matter is visible in the victim's mouth, wipe it out quickly with your fingers or cloth wrapped around your fingers. For an adult, blow vigorously at a rate of about 12 breaths per minute. For a child, take relatively shallow breaths at a rate of about 20 per minute.
If you are not getting air exchange (expansion of victim's chest, return outflow when you remove your mouth), recheck head and jaw positions; make sure mouth and throat are clear.
If you still do not get air exchange, turn victim on his side and give several sharp blows between shoulder blades in hope of dislodging foreign matter. Again sweep fingers through mouth to remove foreign matter. A handkerchief or cloth may be placed over the victim's mouth or nose if the rescuer wishes to avoid direct contact. Several layers of cloth will not greatly affect air exchange.
Several sharp pats between shoulder blades may dislodge foreign matter from victim's throat
Start artificial respiration immediately and continue until doctor arrives or you are positive life is gone. It is the victim's only hope of life while rescuers with equipment are on the way.
Infants and small children respiration mouth to mouth technique:
Continue artificial respiration until the victim begins to breathe for himself or until a physician pronounces the victim dead. Time your efforts to breathe into the victim to coincide with the victim's first attempt to breathe for himself.
Normally, recovery is rapid except in electric shock, and drug or carbon monoxide poisoning, which may require artificial respiration for long periods.
An airway tube is desirable first-aid equipment:
Drugstores sell inexpensive "resuscitation tubes" made of plastic. One end is inserted over the victim's tongue, the other end projects and serves as a mouthpiece through which the rescuer breathes into the victim. Direct oral contact is avoided. The tubes come in child and adult sizes and are very desirable pieces of firstaid equipment to carry in a car and have in the home for emergencies. Follow directions for use of the tube very carefully or you may do more harm than good. If tube is not instantly available, give direct mouth to mouth respiration immediately.
For choking, the Heimlich manuever:
Begin artificial respiration the instant a near?drowned person is landed. Do not waste time trying to "empty water out of the lungs" by jackknifing or rolling on a barrel. Turn victim's head to side, clean foreign material from mouth, so stomach contents can clear. Begin artificial respiration. Keep victim's tongue out of throat; keep air passages open at all times. Continue without interruption until help comes. Check to see that tongue is clear and airway open at all times. Keep victim warm.
Gas poisoning (Carbon monoxide poisoning):
Get victim into fresh air. Protect yourself
in entering gas?filled area. A wet cloth over your nose does not protect
you. Tie a rope around yourself so someone can pull you out if you fall.
Prevent asphyxiation tragedies
Children put small objects into their mouths and sometimes "inhale" them. Keep beans, peanuts, fruit pits, pins, buttons, beads, coins out of reach of small children. Permit no toy smaller than child's fist. Check toys for parts such as doll's eyes that may come loose and be taken into the windpipe. Never leave a small child alone in a bathtub for a second. Have gas heaters, ranges, appliances, home furnaces checked regularly by trained service men. Never run car engine with garage door closed. Have car exhaust system checked periodically.
First, shut off current or remove victim from contact (extreme caution) then give immediate prolonged artificial respiration until help comes. Serious electric shock paralyzes breathing centers, causes unconsciousness. Ordinary house current can cause fatal shock under some circumstances. Don't touch victim until current is turned off or victim is free of contact with current--you may be electrocuted yourself. If indoors, or if switch is near, turn off current at switch. If outdoors (live wires, no switch) have someone phone elec tric company to turn off current, but don't wait for this. If victim's muscular contractions have thrown him free of current he may be touched at once. Otherwise, proceed with extreme caution. Insulate yourself from the earth and the victim with dry nonconducting materials, such as a long length of dry rope or cloth. But remember that very few materials are bone-dry, and that you are risking your life.
Never use anything metallic, wet, or damp.
It may be simplest to pull wire away from victim, as below:
Use the same first aid as for electric shock except that victims may be touched immediately and artificial respiration can begin at once. To avoid danger from lightning, seek lowest point, ditch, depression; avoid isolated trees. One of respiration safest places to be in a lightning storm is inside a car. Cover all unused wall sockets with protective plates.
Prevent electrocution accidents